Dangerous and fatal diseases of decorative rabbits are a real scourge of professional rabbit breeders, because during the breeding animals lost the ability to fully resist infections. In some cases, rabbits can be protected from infection with dangerous diseases only by timely vaccination, as well as quarantine measures. Treatment of individuals is an extremely complex process, which gives a positive effect only in the early stages of identifying a pathology.
The main signs of rabbit disease
If you are engaged in breeding domestic rabbits, you must carefully follow the recommendations of veterinarians, periodically conducting a review of their pets. At the slightest sign of a deviation from the norm, it is necessary to sound the alarm, isolate such an animal from the rest of the herd and strengthen its monitoring.
The main symptoms that indicate a possible disease of the animal:
- the rabbit loses its appetite, and its coat becomes dull and disheveled;
- diarrhea or constipation appears;
- the baby is hiding from bright light, climbing deep into the cage;
- premature molting and hair loss by shreds begin;
- mucous discharge from the nose and eyes;
- cough begins and body temperature rises.
Sometimes such symptoms are caused by improper feeding with the use of protein-rich foods, so you need to approach the daily diet of rabbits with special responsibility.
Be sure to measure the body temperature of the animal. To do this, carefully insert a special plastic thermometer into the anus.
The normal rabbit body temperature is 38.3-39.5 degrees Celsius, and any deviation from the norm indicates the presence in the body of worms or pathogens of other diseases.
Due to the fact that decorative rabbits have weak immunity, their body is constantly at risk and prone to dangerous diseases. Lack of timely treatment can lead to a sharp deterioration in health and even death.
The rabbits digestive system, adapted for processing and digesting coarse plant foods, occupies a huge volume of its body. Therefore, any gastrointestinal disease disrupts the functioning of all body systems and can lead to fatal consequences.
In the event of stressful situations and feeding with rolls or cereals, the stomach and intestines of the ornamental rabbit begin to contract incorrectly, and the intestinal microflora goes out of balance. The animal develops gastrointestinal stasis, characterized by severe constipation and severe pain.
The treatment of this disease requires changes in the diet, stimulation of appetite and massage of the abdomen. Enterosorbents are given to the rabbit to relieve gas formation.
Other diseases of the digestive system
In some cases, hairy balls (trichobesoars) can form in the rabbits with long hair in the intestines, which can lead to the formation of gases and obstruction.
Giving fresh fruit to the rabbit will cause him to have diarrhea, thanks to which the hair balls will leave the body. If this does not happen, then your pet will need surgical treatment.
In young rabbits, often due to improper feeding, blockage of the blind and large intestines by mucus occurs. They develop constipation, accompanied by severe pain. If you find such signs, be sure to give the animal a laxative in the form of salad or fruit.
After treatment of other diseases with antibiotics in the digestive tract of decorative rabbits, dysbiosis can develop, which is accompanied by diarrhea and rapid weakening of the animal. For treatment, Nystatin is used and dietary translation is used.
Due to the large amount of acid secreted by the stomach, some individuals may develop peptic ulcer. It is very difficult to identify it, since rabbits do not have emetic reflexes. Animals simply lose their appetite and feel depressed. For prevention and treatment, it is better to periodically add small doses of antiulcer drugs to rabbit food.
Fatal Rabbit Disease
Myxomatosis and viral hemorrhagic disease are considered the most dangerous infectious diseases of rabbits. Their pathogens are spread through the contacts of animals between themselves, as well as transmitted by blood-sucking insects. fleas, lice, mosquitoes and mosquitoes.
The main signs of such diseases are an increase in the body temperature of a decorative rabbit, the appearance of signs of pneumonia, conjunctivitis, as well as swelling of the body.
There are no ways to treat these diseases, so diseased animals must be destroyed, and their carcasses are burned.
The only reliable remedy is timely vaccination, which can be found in the article “Using the Associated Vaccine for Rabbits”.
In infectious rhinitis in animals, inflammation of the upper respiratory tract begins. The rapid spread of the disease contributes to a large crowding of rabbits.
In animals, the temperature rises, purulent discharge from the nose appears, and breathing becomes difficult. Treatment with a 15% solution of Econovocillin is advisable only in the early stages of the development of the disease. In other cases, rabbits should be isolated and slaughtered, and their carcasses burned.
Young animals may develop infectious stomatitis or “wet muzzle disease”. In diseased rabbits, sections of the red mucous membrane and a whitish film on the tongue are noticeable in the mouth.
Animals become lethargic, and their coat loses its luster. Appetite is significantly reduced. If treatment is not done in a timely manner, then within 1-1.5 weeks the entire livestock is infected, and the mortality rate among sick rabbits reaches 30%.
For treatment use “Biomycin”, “Streptocide”, “Sulfadimezin” or “Penicillin”. But it will be correct if you first consult with a veterinarian who will prescribe a course of treatment in accordance with the symptoms and stage of the disease.
With improper care, staphylococcal infections can develop in the cells, causing staphylococcosis in rabbits. Staphylococci penetrate even the slightest wounds on the skin of animals, causing abscesses, abscesses and phlegmon.
In the advanced form of staphylococcosis, ornamental rabbits develop a septic process of general poisoning of the body, which leads to the death of the animal.
If the first signs of the disease are detected, the rabbits should be transferred to another room and the course of treatment should begin. For this, abscesses and phlegmon are opened, after which they are treated with streptomycin, zinc or penicillin ointment.
The remains of feed, litter and manure are burned, and the cell itself is treated with a 15% solution of chloramine.
If your pets suddenly start to lose their hair, this may be the result of extraordinary molting or damage to rabbits with fungal infections. Such diseases are very dangerous, since parasites living in the skin produce highly toxic substances that poison the body of the animal.
A serious danger is a skin fungus that causes dermatomycosis.
The fungus itself is not visible to the naked eye and is a thin thread that is common inside the skin of an animal. The rabbit sharply loses its appetite, experiences a stressful state, its hormonal background is disturbed.
The disease spreads rapidly among animals, and one of its varieties is ringworm.
With the development of dermatomycosis, decorative rabbits feel severe itching in the area of the head and ears, the hair falls out or breaks off, and redness is visible on bald spots and a redberry can stand out.
For treatment, drugs that relieve itching are used, antimycotic ointments Saprosan and Unisan are applied to the affected areas
In addition to fungal infections, blood-sucking insects carry a huge danger to rabbits, among which ticks stand out. These parasites can be fur (live in wool), subcutaneous and scabies.
The fur tick is much larger than its counterparts and can be seen with a magnifier. He eats wool, causing it to fall out in the back and tail.
The subcutaneous tick develops in the deeper layers of the skin. The toxic substances produced by him cause constant itching in the back, and the rabbit often begins to itch on the cage.
The most dangerous are scabies mites, which, for laying eggs, drill holes in the skin. Decorative rabbits itch a lot, causing serious wounds to themselves that other infections can enter.
Traditionally, to remove ticks, the skin and skin of a sick rabbit is treated with sulfuric lime. Injections of Ivermectin may be used.
Be sure to disinfect the cell, because ticks are able to live for a long time outside the host’s body, waiting for another victim.
Diseases of the eye of ornamental rabbits
Very often, breeders involved in the breeding of decorative animals encounter their eye diseases.
The fact is that the eyes play a huge role for rabbits, allowing them to get a complete overview of the surrounding area. At the slightest glitches, they get serious stress, which inevitably affects all the processes of their life.
The most common eye disease is conjunctivitis, which is divided into allergic, bacterial and infectious.
If the animal does not have enough vitamin A, then it develops an allergic itch, accompanied by the release of tear fluid. Such conjunctivitis is easily treated by rubbing the eyes of a rabbit with a solution of boric acid or potassium permanganate.
If the animals fester or sour their eyes, then there is an infection by pathogenic bacteria. Pus should be immediately removed with a swab using antiseptic solutions. Antibiotic treatment is prescribed by the veterinarian only after determining the pathogen.
Infectious conjunctivitis manifests itself when infected with the myxomatosis virus and cannot be treated. The animal must be destroyed and disposed of immediately.
Secondary eye diseases and their treatment
Some rabbits with diabetes or encephalitis may develop cataracts or lens clouding, leading to blindness.
In some cases, glaucoma develops, associated with an increase in intraocular pressure. The rabbit is in severe pain, and the only effective treatment is to remove such an eyeball.
Inflammation of the cornea or keratitis is accompanied by photophobia, profuse tearing and discharge of pus. Antiseptic solutions and antibacterial ointments are used for treatment.
When head injuries or after transmission of viral infections, rabbits may develop uveitis, accompanied by a constant increase in the pupil. Such an animal begins to be afraid of light and clogs into a dark corner. The pet eats worse, and its skin loses its luster. Atropine-based anti-inflammatory drugs are used for treatment.
Small rabbits can develop dacryocystitis, characterized by obstruction of the lacrimal canal, in which pathogenic bacteria can rapidly develop. For treatment, drops with an antiseptic solution should be used, although in infants the immunity can cope with this disease on its own.
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