The "life path" of a rabbit from his birth until the moment he decorates someone else’s dining table is not always easy and carefree. both for the animal itself and for its owner. The rabbit is in wait for various dangers that take the form of diseases, and it is good if the owner manages to avoid them.
One of the most common disease-hazards is coccidiosis, which will be discussed in this article.
What is coccidiosis and what it is eaten with
Coccidiosis belongs to a number of parasitic (invasive) diseases. that is, those caused by various parasites: arthropods and helminths (flukes, tapeworms, crests, roundworms, etc.). This disease is caused by unicellular parasites. coccidia. The “privilege” of being sick belongs to animals, but sometimes a person is at risk. Of course, anthelmintic prophylaxis is one of the mandatory procedures that every prudent owner who cares about the health of his farm should do. But it often happens that a person for some reason does not prevent the possibility of a disease manifesting and, as a result, already observes its symptoms.
The main risk group in which this disease can break out is young rabbits from the first birthday to three to four months. Experts say that coccidia are present in the rabbit body from its very birth, just like a person is born with worms or any other animal with its parasites. That is, the very presence of coccidia does not cause danger. The main thing is to prevent their reproduction, development and occurrence of the disease itself. And since no one has the opportunity to look into the insides of a live rabbit, it will be natural for its owner to begin to solder it slowly from the very first birthday of the baby in order to avoid the possible occurrence of a focus. Adult individuals rarely suffer from coccidiosis, but it may well be its carriers. In particular, they can easily infect their cubs literally immediately after birth. Infection from parents usually occurs through contaminated rabbit nipples by sucking milk, and then through contaminated feed and water contaminated with feces and by eating the infected droppings themselves. However, a person with the same ease can put his hand to the infection of rabbit offspring. In addition, rabbits can become infected from various rodents, flies, birds.
The causes of coccidiosis are as follows:
- "Living" a large number of young rabbits or individuals of different ages in one cage.
- dirty cells, drafts and dampness.
- poor-quality feed or a sharp change in feeding types (for example, when switching from winter to summer type).
- frequent feeding of the same, especially protein food (which is a hotbed of coccidia).
- feeding rabbits with dried skimmed milk powder and bran. wheat or alfalfa.
- unbalanced diet.
According to the variety of coccidia, two types of the disease are distinguished: intestinal coccidiosis and hepatic. From the names it is clear what exactly in the body of a rabbit is affected by each species. The incubation period lasts two to three days. The disease is not in vain divided into two types. intestinal and hepatic coccidioses differ in symptoms and in the appearance of the liver and intestines. For example, symptoms of intestinal coccidiosis in small rabbits that are not yet a month old are as follows:
- alternating diarrhea and constipation. This is especially pronounced in the summer, when fresh grass appears in the food of rabbits.
- poor appearance and appetite, slow growth.
- tousled dull hair.
- unusual thirst.
- epileptic nerve seizures in a lying position can also be observed.
These are symptoms of an acute form of the disease. If, over a period of one and a half to two weeks, diseased animals are not treated or treated ineffectively, they have exhaustion and, as a logical result, death. The mortality rate is 100%. When opening a carcass in the reddened mucous membrane of the intestine, you can find many small whitish nodules. this is the cause of your pet’s death. The intestine itself will contain liquid feed with gaseous vesicles. The affected liver, enlarged several times, will have the same nodules. Usually rabbits get sick with both types of coccidiosis at once, so all this pleasure can be seen in a comprehensive manner.
With a not so acute form, these signs appear weaker, some rabbits can recover, but at the same time they will become carriers of coccidiosis.
Symptoms of hepatic coccidiosis are as follows:
- yellow or pale color of the mucous membranes of the mouth and eyelids instead of the usual reddish.
- less pronounced signs of intestinal coccidiosis.
The disease develops within a month or two, failure to provide assistance leads to severe exhaustion and death.
It is not difficult to make a diagnosis at home, the main thing is to catch up on time if you notice something is wrong in the behavior or appearance of the rabbits and turn to the veterinarian for confirmation of your guesses.
"How is all this treated?"
The treatment so terrible according to the description of the disease is not as scary as it might seem at first glance. And even less terrible is the prevention of coccidiosis.
To begin with, you should clean up the feeding of rabbits and clean them in their cages, rid the animals of dampness and drafts. Actually, there shouldn’t be the last factors initially, but since for some reason you spoiled it, it’s never too late to close up all previously unaccounted gaps and replace the litter. It is within the power of every master.
Your best assistant in the fight against coccidiosis and its prevention will be the most common iodine or iodine-containing drugs. They are able to prevent the development of coccidia and help oxidize those substances that have remained unprocessed by the stomach.
Iodine treatment occurs in this way.
Starting from the twenty-fifth day of pregnancy, 100 ml is added to the female feed daily. 0, 01% iodine solution, so that it accumulates in her body and then gets through the milk to rabbits. This is done until the fifth day of feeding, then a five-day break is arranged, after which the next fifteen days the rabbit should drink already 200 ml. 0.02% iodine solution. Then again a five-day break. At the end of it, the rabbits turn a month old, they are sedimented from the female and 50 ml are given ten days. 0, 01% solution, then they also take a five-day break, after which they give 0, 02% solution for fifteen days in the first week of 70 ml, then 100 ml.
In exactly the same way it is necessary to solder sick cubs, regardless of whether they received iodine with mother’s milk or not.
For the preparation of the solution, any dishes except metal ones are used. This is a prerequisite.
Drug treatment with such drugs is also used:
- sulfadimetatoxin (0, 2 g per 1 kg. rabbit on the first day of the disease, in the next four. 0, 1 g. Then. a five-day break and again the course of treatment).
- furazolidone (30 mg. per 1 kg. rabbit).
Separately, it is worth stopping at the bike box. This is a representative of a new generation of drugs, which is very popular. Bycox treatment is preferred by more and more hosts who have had to deal with this disease. Experienced rabbit breeders say that even rabbits with an advanced stage can be cured with baykoks and give some tips on how best to use the drug. Some immediately inject 2 cubes of undiluted drug, then add the medicine to the drinker, others dilute the drug with water, following the instructions, and inject it once at a rate of about 10 ml. pure substance. However, treatment methods can be clarified when buying a medicine or in consultation with a veterinarian.
Some drugs. for example, norsulfazole and phthalazole. are given in pairs to enhance the therapeutic effect in the following proportion: 0.3. 0.4 g of norsulfazole and 0.1 g of phthalazole per 1 kg. rabbit for five days. then a five-day break. then repeat. However, today they are considered obsolete, and we only talk about them in order to give you the most comprehensive treatment options. The dosage of the remaining drugs can be found out when they are bought at a veterinary pharmacy or from a veterinarian. In addition, fermented milk products, such as yogurt or whey, are beginning to be added to the diet of sick rabbits.
Such a long list of drugs and treatment methods is explained by the fact that, according to experts, the same drugs can not be used for a long time in the same household: coccidia develops stable “immunity” for “enemies” they know. That is, if in a year or two the disease returns to your rabbits, you will need to treat them with other medicines and methods.
Some Prevention Tips
Iodine, iodine, and some additional measures to prevent the appearance of coccidiosis in your eared pets do not interfere with taking, especially since most of them lie in the plane of the conditions of detention. We have already talked about the purity and dryness of cells; we will tell you about some more methods.
- it is necessary to change the water in the drinkers as often as possible and wash the drinkers themselves.
- the cells must have floors in a fine mesh so that the manure wakes up. The size of each cell should not exceed 15 by 15 mm. In addition, once every five to ten days it is worth carrying out the disinfection of cells and equipment with a blowtorch.
- The rabbit diet should be made up of only benign feed. It is strictly forbidden to feed rabbits with swamp grass, alfalfa, bran. You should also not overfeed them with protein foods.
- you must ensure that the hay, root crops and grass that you feed do not fall on the land contaminated with feces.
- change the type of feeding should be gradual. For example, if you are transferring your pets from hay to fresh grass, it is best to start by feeding withered green grass.
- feeders, nurseries and drinking bowls must be installed so that they do not get droppings.
- You can come across this advice: keep in one cage no more than two dozen young rabbits. In fact, it will be enough to keep together no more than a dozen rabbits. The fewer animals sitting on each other’s head, the better.
However, having cured your pets of coccidiosis, you will not completely relieve them of this disease: they remain carriers of its causative agents. Therefore, they, cured, must be scored. We hasten to reassure: in food and for sale, the meat of such rabbits can be used, except for the intestines and liver. they will need to be burned or filled with boiling water, otherwise you risk leaving a perennial outbreak of this disease in your yard. Fire or boiling water will destroy coccidia and their eggs in five to ten seconds.
If you find symptoms of coccidiosis in your rabbits, do not panic first. Any disease, if it was not possible to prevent, can be cured. if you take it on time. But such a medical epic will serve as a good lesson for you and will make you more savvy in some matters of housekeeping. If you manage to avoid such situations thanks to our advice, we will only be happy.