Rabbits require care and attention, proper feeding and maintenance, timely veterinary care.
Coccidiosis is an invasive disease, it causes unicellular parasites. coccidia, and they damage the intestines and liver. In rabbits, there are ten types of coccidia, they are located in the intestines and liver. Of these, nine species are found in the intestinal mucosa, one species is present in the liver. In rabbits, intestinal and hepatic coccidiosis can begin simultaneously.
Rabbit coccidiosis strongly distributed in rabbit farms. Animals are ill with them all year round, exacerbation begins in the spring-summer period. Only rabbits can become infected with rabbit coccidia; young animals are most sick before the age of four months. Adults remain carriers of coccidiosis and rarely get sick. Is this disease dangerous for humans? For other animals and humans coccidiosis is not dangerous.
Rabbits are infected simply: through water, food, milk, all objects infected with coccidia. Little rabbits begin to get sick from the first days of life. coccids are in the contaminated nipples of the mother, and rabbits suck milk from them. When rabbits grow up, the causative agents of coccidiosis come to them with water, food and when eating feces.
An outbreak of invasion occurs due to violations of the veterinary and sanitary rules for feeding and keeping pets:
- Rabbits are kept crowded, or individuals of different ages are in the same cage.
- The cells have drafts and dampness, but there is no purity.
- A balanced diet is not followed.
- Rabbits suffer from protein overfeeding, and it accumulates under-oxidized protein breakdown products in the body and coccidia develop favorably in this environment.
- Rabbits include feed containing coccidioses in the diet.
- Sanitary and hygienic norms of feeding are violated, poor-quality feeds are given to rabbits, some feeds are sharply changed for others.
With coccidiosis, a hidden incubation period lasts up to three days.
Symptoms of Coccidiosis
Almost every rabbit has parasites of this species, but the pet does not get sick or the disease is mild and does no harm to health. If rabbits are kept in adverse conditions, then coccidia multiply and affect the liver or intestines, the disease takes on a severe form.
The pet does not completely digest food and its body is constantly poisoned by poisons. The belly sags, becomes flabby, and the hair loses its luster and seems tousled. The rabbit begins to drink a lot of fluids, he loses his appetite and loses weight very much, lethargy appears, and constipation alternates with diarrhea.
Then the rabbit organism refuses to fight with a lot of parasites, intestinal or liver cells are destroyed. If the animal has an intestinal form of coccid, it will be fatal within two weeks. Before death, cramps occur in rabbits: the head throws back and he falls on his back. Some individuals begin to make swimming movements of the limbs. In a non-acute course of the disease, the symptoms of the disease pass in a mild form, convulsions are not observed and some of the animals recover, but they become coccidiocarriers.
Hepatic coccidiosis stretches and does not allow the rabbit to die so quickly, the disease becomes chronic, but after a month or two it still dies. The liver is affected and hepatic syndrome appears. It is manifested by yellowness of the visible mucous membranes of the oral cavity and on the eyelids. If he does not receive timely medical assistance, he will die greatly exhausted. When a rabbit has two forms of coccidiosis, it dies faster.
The exact cause of death is determined at autopsy:
- hepatic coccidiosis. the liver increases up to seven times, white formations appear in it in the form of nodules, the size of which is millet grain;
- intestinal coccidiosis. parasites affect the intestines from the inside, but the same nodules are visible even through the walls of the intestine, only they are smaller in size, and the intestinal membrane appears reddened.
The veterinarian makes the diagnosis in a comprehensive manner, taking into account the clinical signs of the disease, the data of the pathoanatomical autopsy and the results of microscopic studies of feces.
A rabbit can become infected from another sick rabbit or other animals that tolerate coccidia. flies, birds, rodents. The source of the disease may be contaminated cleaning equipment or the hands of a rabbit breeder. Factors that increase the likelihood of infection:
- young rabbits are kept in a single cage in large numbers and have different ages;
- in the cells there is dirt and increased dampness, animals are subject to drafts and sudden changes in temperature;
- nutrition in rabbits is unbalanced in trace elements and vitamins;
- there is an excess of protein food in the diet, and it creates good conditions for coccidia in the animal’s body;
- feed changes dramatically.
Coccidiosis treatment in rabbits
Treatment should begin with proper content rabbits, eliminate all deficiencies in feeding and factors predisposing to infection.
The best method for treating coccidiosis in rabbits is to first start using iodine preparations and coccidiostatics for rabbits.
They are a strong antioxidant and in the body neutralize unoxidized toxic products from protein breakdown, thereby inhibiting the development of coccidia. Iodine, once in the body of an animal, stimulates it completely.
The female, during pregnancy, in the last days begin to give drugs containing iodine. And rabbits in the first days of life begin to receive it along with their mother’s milk. Iodine solutions should be given in the morning before distributing the feed instead of water. they are poured into drinking bowls, following the instructions:
- Begin on the 25th day of pregnancy and end on the fifth day of lactation. Rabbits are given 100 ml of a 0.001% iodine solution daily. After that, take a break for five days and start on the tenth day of lactation to drink 200 ml of a 0.002% iodine solution, ends on the 25th day of lactation. Bunnies drink this solution with the rabbit.
- In the first 10 days of deposition, rabbits (approximately 40 days of age) are each given 50 ml of a 0.001% iodine solution. Then it is necessary to take a break for five days and then 15 days to give: the first half of the period of 70 ml of a 0.002% iodine solution, and then switch to 100 ml.