The first information about a large-scale epidemic of rabbits from the GBC dates back to the 80s of the XX century. Hemorrhagic rabbit disease was immediately ranked as a dangerous disease. The incredible survivability of the virus and resistance even to chlorine-containing treatments were not immediately recognized.
How is the disease transmitted and spread?
HBV in rabbits is an extremely insidious virus that has the ability to quickly destroy the body of an animal. Capable of about five years, not amenable to destruction by chlorine, after freezing at temperatures below 50 degrees can be activated after defrosting.
Sources of the disease are sick animals or the virus carries the person himself.
The hemorrhage in rabbits is transmitted in the following way:
- through excrement;
- meat, skins of ill animals;
- contaminated soil;
- through drinking bowls or feeders;
- through the flooring;
- pet food.
Significantly increases the possibility of infection of rabbits with the following factors:
- Defective feeding of animals; unsanitary conditions in rabbitry;
- from infected cattle in nearby pastures by airborne droplets;
- with low immunity in animals;
- transportation of animals in another’s transport;
- after stress suffered by animals (from a change of place, a sharp cooling or, conversely, heat).
For humans, rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease is not dangerous. However, he is a carrier of the disease through clothes, shoes, hands. The virus is able to spread by airborne droplets. An epidemic can erupt at any time of the year.
According to research, the virus is able to "nap" in the cell walls for rabbits up to 50 years.
In what form does the disease occur?
Hemorrhagic disease in rabbits proceeds in different forms and its symptoms are somewhat different.
- the animal rises to 41 ° C;
- the animal becomes lethargic;
- oral bleeding; the virus quickly infects the lungs;
- the animal ceases to eat;
- palpitations are quickening;
- diarrhea is observed.
In a chronic course, the following signs of the disease:
- suppuration of the cornea of the eyes;
- discharge from the sinuses;
- gastric bleeding;
- blue lips.
The symptoms of hemorrhagic disease in rabbits in a chronic form are dangerous because they are not recognized immediately and the animal quickly infects the herd.
How does the development of pasteurellosis occur?
Hemorrhagic fever develops rapidly in the body of an animal:
- spreads to the hematopoietic organs inflamed lymph nodes;
- toxins are activated;
- tissue is destroyed at the cellular level;
- subcutaneous hemorrhages occur; redness and swelling of the eyes;
- the animal has vomiting with blood, the liver and spleen are affected; signs of heart failure appear.
The stage passes into a purulent abscess of the lungs with all the ensuing consequences.
The disease affects pregnant females. Seeing the first symptoms, rabbit breeders begin to vaccinate females and wait for offspring. However, vaccination of rabbits from HBV in this situation may already be ineffective and miscarriage is most often observed.
If the rabbit gets sick after the birthing, the cubs are not considered sick. They acquire immunity. Its effect is about a month. Rabbits are planted with another female for feeding or artificial feeding of young animals is carried out.
Following the pregnant females, the males die. As a result, there are several rabbits who managed to administer the vaccine. Surviving and newborns rabbits.
Regardless of how much the HBCC vaccine costs, it is cheaper than the lost stock. Depending on the immunity, the characteristics of the animal genotype and the measures taken, the virus takes 90-100% of the livestock.
How to diagnose a disease?
Rabbit breeders consider the death of one or two animals to be commonplace and do not understand the seriousness of what is happening. Protecting yourself from the disease means vaccinating on time. Otherwise, a situation may arise when it is already useless to vaccinate sick rabbits.
If the rabbit breeder has noticed symptoms of the disease, you should immediately contact veterinarians. In the first hours there is still a chance to save the livestock. Otherwise, you should expect 100% death.
The dead rabbit must be submitted to the laboratory for research.
Pathological anatomical autopsy is performed. Blood sampling for the presence of the virus is carried out from the heart muscle. Differential diagnostics are performed to help find the cause of the disease.
How to prevent and treat HBVC?
There is no cure for HBVC yet. Instructions for the prevention and elimination of viral hemorrhagic disease provide for the only measure of salvation of the livestock. vaccination.
To prevent the virus from entering the rabbit farm, the following preventative measures are effective:
- the farm must be fenced;
- mandatory installation of disinfecting barriers at the entrance to the farm;
- not allow the transport of equipment and rabbits on other people’s vehicles;
- Workers should have replaceable work shoes and clothes;
- you need to purchase feed from trusted suppliers;
- daily carry out sanitary and hygienic measures;
- take measures to prevent entry into the premises where rabbits, wild rodents and insects are raised.
A dry vaccine that has a longer shelf life than a diluted vaccine should always be available to the rabbit breeder for emergency vaccination.
Breeders and competent veterinarians recommend comprehensive vaccination as prophylaxis. The procedure is done in a veterinary clinic or on site.
The associated vaccine for rabbits against myxomatosis and HBV is administered intramuscularly to rabbits at a month and a half, then after 90 days.
Adult livestock should be vaccinated every six months. When vaccinating a pregnant female in newborns, immunity is up to 30 days.
Recovery after illness
The carcasses of diseased animals are subject to urgent disposal. Animals in which the virus was not detected are immediately vaccinated.
A complete disinfection of the cells, rooms and vehicles where the animals were. Inventory is burned. Animal fur is disinfected with 2% formaldehyde or 5% chloramine, glutaraldehyde.
Importation of new individuals is possible no earlier than 14 days after the end of the epidemic.