Rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease is a very scary disease. It completely affects the body of animals. Appears suddenly. It has a very rapid development, which leads to death. The virus spreads rapidly among the entire population. It affects healthy animals with lightning speed.
Historical background of the disease
This virus was discovered back in the 19th century. The disease was discovered by Louis Pasteur. He investigated the symptoms of poultry. As a result of experiments, it turned out that many species of animals can suffer from this disease. The forms of such a pathogen are very diverse. Treatment is almost impossible. The virus is not afraid of either heat or cold. Resistant to all weather conditions. May persist even after chemical treatments. The virus is viable in manure for 30 days. In animal carcasses lives more than 100 days.
Description of the disease
Sources of disease
Sick individuals, as well as the person himself, can be sources of the disease. The transmission factors of the disease are:
- Drinking water;
- Feed mixtures.
The disease spreads with:
- Poor feeding of animals;
- Poor maintenance in unsanitary conditions;
- If the virus enters the respiratory tract;
- From cattle on nearby pastures;
- With reduced immunity;
- Toxic infections;
- When a person makes an infection.
The causative agent can be considered a dangerous virus. It contains the RNA gene and has an increased risk of infection of the entire rabbit organism. The capacity of a dangerous virus can last more than 5 years. It is tenacious and can carry chlorine, ether. It does not give in to frosts. It can be frozen at temperatures below 50 ° C. But after defrosting, it becomes competent again. For a person poses no threat. May spread by airborne droplets. The epidemic occurs throughout the year.
Forms of the disease and their course
- Acute form. Occurs at the onset of the onset of symptoms. May occur after stress. Also appears during regrouping, transportation of livestock in other people’s cars, in case of accidental contact of healthy individuals with patients. Such individuals die within 1-3 days.
- Chronic form. Occurs with poor care. This type of disease can occur unnoticed. Treatment is almost impossible. After this type of virus, a rapid epidemic begins, leading to death.
Symptoms of various forms of the disease
In acute form, the following symptoms are observed:
- Elevated temperature 40-41 ° C;
- The disappearance of activity, weakness;
- Bleeding from the mouth;
- Lung virus infection;
- Loss of appetite;
- The occurrence of pathological processes in the intestines and stomach;
- The appearance of diarrhea.
In the chronic form, the following symptoms are observed:
- The appearance of conjunctivitis;
- The onset of rhinitis;
- Bleeding from the anus;
- Bowel damage;
- Diseases of the stomach;
- Blue lips;
- The appearance of purulent pneumonia.
Such symptoms occur in animals:
- The virus begins to multiply rapidly;
- Penetrates into the circulatory system;
- Covers lymph nodes;
- It begins the active release of harmful toxins;
- Destroys the walls of vascular organs;
- Changes cellular elements;
- Causes a hemorrhagic diagnosis;
- Subcutaneous smudges and nodes appear;
- Causes hemorrhages on the mucous membranes of the eyes;
- Causes blood vomiting;
- Covers the oral cavity;
- It affects the liver;
- Does not allow the heart to circulate blood;
- Fills the spleen with blood.
If you experience the first symptoms, you should immediately contact your veterinarian. Otherwise with untimely actions, the virus can be transmitted to healthy individuals. This will lead to an epidemic and death of the entire population. It is absolutely necessary to make a pathological autopsy, to conduct studies of the internal organs of animals.
- Blood is taken from the heart of the animal. Do a research analysis;
- The virus is checked for pathogenicity;
- Differential diagnosis can help identify the cause.
Sick rabbits should not be left to offspring. They lack natural and natural immunity.
Features of the case of a rabbit with HBV
If you compare this disease with other diseases, then a distinctive feature will be a different time of death. Not all animals can die at the same time. Rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease has a massive epidemic. It all starts with a few individuals. Breeders consider the death of some animals to be commonplace, not understanding the whole situation. At this point, death (high mortality) begins to gain new momentum.
Following other animals, adults die. The disease takes pregnant females. After the first symptoms, farmers begin to vaccinate rabbits. Waiting for new offspring. But in most cases, the females have a miscarriage. If the rabbit gets sick with the virus after being scanned, the newborns are left without mother and milk. But in this case, the offspring is not sick. Kids were able to acquire immunity from this disease. Approximate effect of immunity: 30-35 days. In this case, it is urgent to find the stepmother for the kids. The cubs are planted with another lactating rabbit. Otherwise, it is necessary to produce artificial feeding.
After pregnant females, adult males may die. In farming, there are only a few individuals who managed to deliver the vaccine against the virus on time. There are also newborn rabbits and individuals who were able to cope with this disease. Mortality depends on the time period, immunity and breed of animals. The disease takes 90-100% of the total population.
It was found that the survival rate of individuals after rampant epidemics is significantly increased. The course of the disease is not fleeting.
Watch a video with a brief description of the disease.
Prohibitions in a dysfunctional paragraph
- It is forbidden to import and export livestock, carcasses, fur, fluff, household items;
- It is strictly forbidden to group animals;
- Organize various events, competitions, exhibitions related to a large concentration of animals;
- Exchange individuals with other livestock breeders;
- Hold fairs for the sale of livestock, equipment, manure, slaughter carcasses, down and fur;
- Harvest green food in those places where the corpses of rabbits were;
- It is forbidden to feed food to healthy animals, where the corpses of sick individuals were;
- To give waste from canteens without disinfection.
Activities at a disadvantaged point
- You must contact the administration of the settlement. Employees must keep records of the total population;
- In sick individuals, a thorough examination of the body is necessary;
- Infected animals are killed;
- Carcasses should be burned;
- All livestock should immediately be given passive immunization;
- It is necessary to fully vaccinate the remaining uninfected individuals;
- If there is no vaccine, a complete slaughter of all rabbits is carried out. Young growth at the age of less than 60 days. The adult livestock is disposed of for meat. In this case, all veterinary conditions must be observed. The procedure is carried out under the supervision of the state veterinary inspector. The meat must be boiled and spread without restrictions. The remaining organs. paws, heads utilize blood together with the rest of the livestock;
- The territory and premises where animals were kept are thoroughly disinfected;
- The epidemic should be reported to the media;
- Conduct outreach to employees of the enterprise;
- Start daily disinfection;
- Skins of animals that were in an unfavorable area should be stored separately. They are placed in a vacuum package. Sent to the enterprise for disinfection. They receive a special certificate for distribution.
Treatment of HBV in rabbits
Can sick rabbits be saved?
In veterinary clinics, there is no cure for this disease. therefore treatment is impossible. HBV in rabbits begins suddenly. Therefore, the only option for saving the livestock is vaccination. But it is worth considering that even vaccination does not give a 100% guarantee.
The Importance of Vaccination
Vaccination is considered a method against the onset of disease. The virus can occur in any animals. They can be kept both in the wild and at home. Therefore, vaccination is required! Otherwise, treatment will be impossible. The virus can get from a bite of a mosquito, any other insect. An epidemic can occur in the air from cattle near nearby pigsties. May occur from a bite of rodents. The virus develops rapidly in the body. therefore in order to prolong the life of furry animals, it is necessary to vaccinate them on time.
Doses and methods of using the vaccine
There is associated vaccination and mono-vaccination. You can also do a comprehensive injection against HBV and myxomatosis. Experienced breeders recommend the latter option. It is carried out 1.5 months after the birth of the baby. The next injection should be carried out 90-100 days after the first. Subsequent vaccinations are carried out every six months.
Intramuscular injection is administered. Recommended volume: 0.5 cm 3. Necessary area for injection: thigh. Needles must be sterilized. The thigh in the injection area must be disinfected with alcohol. After vaccination, a decrease in appetite may be observed.
Usually 10 or 100 vaccines are sold in one package. They must be stored in a cool dark place at a temperature not exceeding 2 ° C. Vaccination is carried out in a veterinary clinic or on their own. The price of one vaccine is 6-10 rubles. The price of packaging for 100 doses is 600-700 rubles. Vaccination in the clinic with an experienced veterinarian will cost 500-1500 rubles.
- It is necessary to put fences;
- Near the entrance, it is necessary to build disinfecting barriers;
- Floor mats should also be disinfectant;
- Motor transport should only be farm. Do not allow the transport of animals and equipment on other people’s cars;
- Care should be taken to monitor the behavior and health of pets;
- It is necessary to carry out daily disinfection of the room, which contains rabbits, their cages and equipment;
- Employees of the enterprise should always have replaceable shoes and special clothes;
- Hygiene should be followed;
- To carry out measures to destroy various insects and wild rodents.
After the outbreak
- To freeze or refuse contracts for the sale of carcasses, fur and the sale of livestock;
- Limit the movement of employees;
- It is forbidden to export equipment, feed mixtures, manure, carcasses outside the farm;
- Animal regrouping should be prohibited;
- It is strictly forbidden to vaccinate against other types of disease;
- It is not allowed to import into the territory of the economy new individuals;
- Immediately, it is necessary to begin identifying the source of infection;
- The epidemic should be reported to special authorities;
- For help, contact a veterinarian.
Recovery after illness
If this disease is detected, the entire population should be checked immediately. At this point, there is a risk of infection in all animals. If there is no serum, then it is necessary to slaughter the infected animals. Since rabbit hemorrhagic disease is very dangerous, slaughter must be done only by the bloodless method (read about him here). Animal carcasses must be disposed of urgently. If animals remained in the household in which the virus was not found, they are urgently vaccinated against this disease. Workers must thoroughly clean the premises where animals were kept. Disinfection is carried out in the premises and vehicles in which they were transported.
It is also necessary to carry out mechanical processing, remove inventory, bedding, manure. All items are burned. Overalls are treated with chemical solutions. The fur of the animals is disinfected. It is necessary to use a 2% mixture of formaldehyde. A 5% chloramine, bleach, or glutaraldehyde is also suitable. Importation of new individuals should be carried out only two weeks after the last outbreak of the virus.