If you are breeding rabbits, you must carefully monitor their health. Quite often, animals are affected by a disease such as rabbit pasteurellosis, the symptoms of which will be described in this article.
Description of the disease
Pasteurellosis. one of the dangerous infectious diseases. Its causative agent is the stick of Pasteurella. The disease affects the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. You can notice the first signs of an illness 5-10 hours after the sticks enter the body. They are poorly expressed, so it is quite difficult to determine the presence of the disease in the early stages.
The probability of a fatal outcome in a disease is 15–75%, depending on the conditions of the animals and the food they eat. The external manifestation of rabbit pasteurellosis is shown in the photo.
- diarrhea begins and bloating is observed;
- breathing becomes heavy, accompanied by wheezing;
- mucus is secreted from the nose and eyes;
- appetite worsens;
- animal behavior is characterized by lethargy, indifference;
- body temperature rises to 41–42 degrees.
Infection with the disease can occur at any time of the year, it affects rodents regardless of their age and breed. Young individuals are more susceptible to disease.
Reasons for the appearance
As mentioned above, infection occurs when Pasteurella bacillus enters the body. Infection may be carried cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, geese and other animals. Also, a person can be a distributor. the stick is carried on clothes and shoes, with infected feed, inventory tools and equipment.
Reproduction in the body of pasteurells occurs rather quickly, they penetrate the lymphatic and circulatory systems, which leads to the occurrence of septicemia. Toxic products damage the vascular walls, hemorrhagic diathesis develops, edema is observed.
Unfortunately, it is quite problematic to establish the exact cause of the disease, therefore it is recommended to regularly conduct animal examinations and carry out preventive measures.
Symptoms and course of the disease
Two forms are distinguished, in which pasteurellosis usually proceeds. Let’s consider them in more detail.
Most often, the acute stage is observed in the very beginning of the appearance of epizootics. During this period, rodents are usually stressed, they are affected by various unfavorable factors: unexpected and prolonged transportation, changing conditions of care, rearrangement.
First of all, the body temperature rises to 41 degrees, the animal refuses food, becomes weak, symptoms of upper respiratory tract damage appear, rabbits begin to sneeze, and a runny nose is observed. Often you can see rapid and complex breathing in animals. After a time, the gastrointestinal tract is affected, diarrhea begins. The weakening of rodents is carried out quite quickly, and after 1-2 days they die.
At first, animals develop symptoms similar to those of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and keratoconjunctivitis. Diarrhea may also be present. Over time, fibrotic and fibro-purulent pleuropneumonia develops.
If rodents are kept in adverse conditions or are part of a dysfunctional herd, pneumonia spreads very quickly and leads to the death of all animals. Purulent abscesses can sometimes be found in the subcutaneous tissue of some rabbits, the opening of which occurs after 1-3 months.
Diagnosis of the disease
The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical studies, as well as after the autopsy of dead animals. The epizootic situation in the region is also carefully studied, the diagnosis is confirmed using bacteriological studies of material taken from dead animals.
Can rabbits be cured
If you start treatment in a timely manner, there is every chance to cure pets. However, in this case, the pathogen (stick) will still remain in the body, and the disease may flare up again.
The course of treatment with these drugs is 3-4 days, they must be administered intramuscularly twice a day.
If there is a chronic form of the disease, it is necessary to adhere to the following scheme: inject sulfonamides for the first three days, then antibiotics for 3 days and then sulfonamides again. The total course of treatment is approximately 9-10 days.
Today, "extractformol vaccine" is very common, but it can only be used to treat rabbits, whose age is more than 1.5 months. For the treatment of animals whose age is 20-40 days, use serum, which is administered every 7 days at the rate of 4 ml per 1 kg of rabbit weight.
If pasteurellosis occurs in rabbits, it is necessary to immediately carry out treatment, since the disease proceeds quite quickly, and you can not have time to save the animals.
Treatment of rodents with a severe lesion is usually not carried out. they are killed and disposed of so that the infection does not spread further.
To prevent the spread of the disease, it is worth following preventive measures:
- resettled infected rabbits in quarantine and urgently carry out their treatment;
- identify as soon as possible what became a source of infection, carry out its elimination;
- perform cleaning and disinfection of cells, aviaries, drinking bowls and surrounding areas. Animals can be released into their cages only 2 weeks after treatment.
Disinfection of animal housing is carried out using the following:
- 1% formalin solution;
- 3% solution of lysol;
- 3% solution of carbolic acid;
- 2% sodium hydroxide solution.
The funds listed must be mixed in one container and treated with a solution of the cage and other rooms where there are rabbits.
With the help of boiling water, processing of feeders, drinking bowls, manure scrapers and other equipment is carried out. Since Pasteurella bacillus may be present in the manure, it is usually buried.
An obligatory stage of preventive measures is the use of a vaccine against rabbit pasteurellosis. They begin to use it immediately, as the rodents reach a month of age. Vaccination of adults is carried out 2 times a year. Today there are a huge number of vaccination regimens, so before use, you should carefully read the instructions. The most common and effective are preparations:
Pasteurellosis is a rather serious disease, the probability of death after which is very high. With competent, thorough care, as well as observing the rules of antiseptics and timely vaccination, the death of animals can be prevented.