Spring and summer bring not only the warmth and prosperity of nature, but also contribute to the outbreak of seasonal diseases among animals. Infectious stomatitis in rabbits can cause death in 30% of cases. We will tell you how to avoid the loss of rabbit stock and help those who are sick recover faster, in our article.
Infectious stomatitis in rabbits
It is advisable to follow the schedule for vaccinating rabbits against the most common diseases. It is timely vaccinations that can prevent or significantly alleviate the course of infectious stomatitis, as well as avoid a strong case of sick animals.
How to identify the appearance of stomatitis in rabbits
What you need to know in order to notice the appearance of a dangerous disease in young rabbits in time, start treatment on time and avoid death? Signs of infectious stomatitis are called by veterinarians:
- Plaque in the mouth, on the upper lip and on the tongue, which is first white, but with a worsening condition becomes gray-red. Usually a discoloration occurs within 3-4 days and is often imperceptible.
- Films in the mouth exfoliate, and large ulcers appear beneath them. In rabbits, salivation begins, which increases with the development of the disease. There is so much saliva that rabbits become wet not only the muzzle, but also the breasts. Wipe drool does not make sense. Animals lose weight, become disheveled and depressed, often scratch their faces with their paws and hide in the corner of the cage. A characteristic chomping sound appears during chewing movements. During this period, the disease already becomes noticeable, and if urgent measures are not taken to treat rabbits infected with the infection, they may die.
- At the third stage of the disease, irreversible consequences begin. At first, the appetite remains the same, but then it becomes painful to chew, and the rabbits begin to refuse food, at the same time they are losing weight significantly. Hunger further reduces immunity, animals stop eating and die from starvation by starvation. Before the case, severe diarrhea with changes in body temperature appears.
In order not to confuse infectious stomatitis with other diseases during which salivation occurs in rabbits, remember the main symptom of stomatitis. the remaining clinical signs of the disease, including diarrhea and depression, occur after the start of salivation. Heatstrokes also cause salivation, which quickly stops after the rabbits are moved to a cool place or shadow.
The development of infectious stomatitis and its consequences
If you do not deal with treatment, in the presence of persistent immunity, young animals can recover in 10-12 days. With a weakened body, the disease becomes severe and ends with a case of sick animals within 5 days. Reasons due to which the likelihood of serious infectious stomatitis is sharply increased:
- crowding of rabbits;
- irregular cleaning in the cells;
- poor nutrition;
- a sharp change in ambient temperature;
- intense heat and humidity.
All these reasons lead to a sharp decrease in immunity and, as a result, to a deterioration in the body’s resistance to various infections.
Why does infectious stomatitis appear?
In order to minimize the possibility of the disease of rabbits with infectious stomatitis and alleviate the symptoms of the disease, it is necessary to know the causes of the infection:
- infected rabbit;
- a carrier rabbit, which was acquired by an adult or taken for mating (in such an animal, the virus lurks in urine, blood and saliva, and infection occurs by contact with the mucous membrane of the tongue);
- feed contaminated by birds, rodents or insects.
If, nevertheless, infection with infectious stomatitis has occurred, but during treatment it is not possible to achieve positive dynamics, and short-term improvements are replaced by deterioration, pay attention to the feed.
Perhaps you introduced a new diet to the rabbits, and it was during this period that stomatitis appeared. Then urgently transfer the animals to the previous diet. Be sure to disinfect all surfaces of cages, feeders and drinking bowls, not only for rabbits, but also for mother liquors.
Disinfection can be chemical (antiseptics from veterinary pharmacies or Laundry Detergent) or thermal (firing with a blowtorch).
What you need to do to cure stomatitis in rabbits
As soon as you determine that the rabbits are sick, and this disease is precisely infectious stomatitis, begin treatment: isolate the diseased animals from healthy animals, disinfect the equipment and cells, treat all rabbits: both the diseased and those that seem healthy.
The sooner treatment is started, the greater the guarantee of complete recovery of the animals. There are many effective methods for treating rabbits with stomatitis:
- lubricate the oral mucosa with streptocidal ointment, in the manufacture of which white streptocide and petrolatum are mixed;
- treat the affected areas twice a day with tampons soaked in a two percent aqueous solution of copper sulfate until the rabbits are completely recovered;
- 2-3 days, pour powder from the fourth part of a white streptocide tablet into your mouth;
- instill 0.05-0.1 g of penicillin into the mouth once a day;
- irrigate the oral mucosa with a 0.15% aqueous solution of potassium permanganate;
- an effective remedy is the Baytril pharmacy drug, which is sufficient to pour a rabbit in the mouth in an amount of 0.5 ml;
- the analogue of Baytril is Enromag, which is a five percent solution of enrofloxacin;
- decoctions of calendula flowers, sage grass, flowers and herbs of chamomile, oak bark reduce inflammation and effectively act as a preventive and auxiliary method in the treatment of rabbit health improvement;
- in veterinary pharmacies there is a radical way to treat the disease with a single injection of penicillin subcutaneously 20-40 thousand units or intramuscularly 40 thousand units per 1 kg of rabbit weight.
If the rabbits do not show severe exhaustion, the stomatitis will recede after 2-3 days, subject to treatment.
During treatment, it is advisable to increase the calorie content of the diet, and also to crush crushed tablets of strepticide in the feed for two days.
Due to the fact that rabbits feel unpleasant sensations when chewing and swallowing food, treatment involves transferring sick animals to food with wet mash mats. If you refuse food, you will have to administer a liquid dressing with a syringe with a nozzle (decoctions of herbs, infant formula for babies or cubs of animals, liquid cereals).
Of the non-standard and innovative methods of treating infectious stomatitis in rabbits, the Moldovan drug Apidermin is known, which is made on the basis of bee products, including honey, propolis, pollen. It successfully anesthetizes pain in rabbits, helps to stimulate immunity, relieves inflammation, and activates restoration processes in damaged tissues of the body.
Infectious stomatitis is activated during periods when rabbits experience stress during the heatwave or rainy season. Dangerous moments are seasonal temperature changes, transportation, relocation from cage to cage, weaning from mother’s milk, soldering, whipping, fights between rabbits.
Periodic examination of the faces of rabbits and checking their tongues are important prerequisites for the rapid treatment of the disease in order to avoid the death of young animals from a dangerous disease.