Often, due to unfavorable conditions of detention or malnutrition, rabbits undergo various ailments, the main symptoms of which every breeder should be able to recognize. Of course, it is better to prevent the disease than to spend a lot of time, effort and money on its treatment. The more often rabbits get sick at home and what medications there are for their treatment, let’s figure it out.
How to understand that a rabbit is sick
It is easy to recognize a healthy rabbit by its behavior and appearance: it is quite active, cheerful, has an excellent appetite, has a smooth, soft and silky, shiny coat. Any changes in the behavior or appearance of the pet should alert the breeder and direct him to take measures to timely identify a possible ailment.
The main signs of rabbit disease are as follows:
- lethargy, apathy, restlessness;
- poor appetite; refusal of food;
- indigestion, which is manifested in prolonged constipation or diarrhea;
- frequent, intermittent breathing;
- increase in body temperature (the norm for rabbits is 38. 39.5 degrees);
- rapid pulse, over 160 beats per minute;
- unnatural, mucous discharge from the nose, eyes, mouth;
- drooping ears;
- lack of shine on the coat, falling in shreds of coat.
All diseases to which animals are exposed are divided into two groups:
- non-infectious (non-infectious) that are not transmitted;
- infectious (contagious) that can be transmitted from an infected animal to a healthy one.
The greatest danger is infectious diseases, which, in the absence of qualified medical care, can kill the entire population in a short time.
Diseases of rabbits, their symptoms and treatment
Most viral and infectious diseases that can affect domestic rabbits are caused by poor living conditions or disturbances in dietary patterns and quality. It is very important for breeders to carefully monitor the health of pets, regularly inspect them, conduct professional treatments. In order to reliably know how to treat them, it is necessary to accurately establish the diagnosis, and for this it is extremely important to recognize the symptoms of the most common ailments.
Rabbit Infectious Diseases
Infectious diseases arise due to the negative effects of bacterial, viral pathogens or parasites that live inside the animal’s body or on its surface.
Among the vast spectrum of such diseases, the greatest danger to rabbits is:
- Pasteurellosis, or a contagious runny nose: its main symptom is the presence of mucous or purulent discharge from the nose. At the same time, the animal feels sluggish, refuses food, his body temperature rises, and diarrhea occurs. Pets who have had pasteurellosis are used exclusively for slaughter. Such animals are not suitable for a tribe.
- Coccidiosis: The disease is characteristic of young animals. It has an invasive nature, in which the pathogen is localized in the intestine and bile ducts. As a result of the negative impact, the animal loses its appetite, loses weight, looks tired and weakened. Further, diarrhea, vomiting, sometimes even jaundice and cramps, are added to the main symptoms, due to which there is a massive mortality of the livestock. The disease greatly affects the liver, as evidenced by pathological studies.
- Myxomatosis: one of the most serious ailments that most often ends with the death of animals. The disease can develop in two forms: nodular. when the whole body is covered with small tumors; edematous, in which emerging tumors merge into a single large edema. Tumors, or mixots, are most often localized on the head, nose, ears, genitals, and limbs. The disease proceeds with great intensity, and if the rabbit is not given treatment, then after 5-6 days he dies.
- Cysticercosis: A dangerous liver disease that, due to the lack of obvious symptoms, is quite difficult to diagnose. The disease is transmitted from dogs, which are considered the main carriers of this type of worms. Getting into the rabbit’s body, worms parasitize, lay eggs en masse, while being able to settle in various parts of the body. In the presence of disease in young individuals, the probability of their death is almost one hundred percent.
Video: treatment of helminths in rabbits
Why do rabbits sneeze
Frequent sneezing in animals, accompanied by secretions of a different nature from the nose, is observed with colds. A cold can develop if the animals stay in a damp, humid atmosphere for a long time, in a draft, and are exposed to rain. For the treatment of ailments, rabbits should be warmed, transferred to a warm room, fed and fed. You also need to instill a weak solution of furacilin daily into the nostrils.
Why did the rabbit’s paws fail
Failure of the hind limbs, or paresis, is a serious phenomenon that often occurs in rabbits. Its main causes are listeriosis, infectious ailments, mechanical injuries, disturbances in the functioning of the central nervous system, gastrointestinal problems, and subdermatitis. Due to the lesion, the pet has inflammation of the hind joints, impaired coordination, and dragging of the hind legs. Treatment will depend on the diagnosis, in particular, the causes of the ailment. Rabbits with listeriosis rarely survive.
Often, if comfort conditions are not observed, rabbits can undergo nematodirosis, an ailment caused by nematode worms that penetrate the small part of the intestine, where they are fixed on its walls. It is very difficult to detect worms, they can parasitize for years, releasing toxins and having a negative effect on other organs. The presence of worms is indicated by frequent diarrhea, weight loss, inhibition of growth of young animals, apathy, refusal of food. To get rid of parasites, special anthelmintic drugs are used, and preventive treatment of cells is regularly carried out.
Bloating, or tympanum, in animals occurs for two main reasons: unsanitary conditions and poor-quality food (rotten, ripe, too wet, the presence of a large percentage of legumes). It is quite easy to diagnose problems with the digestive tract by impaired appetite, lethargy and lethargy, increased abdominal volume, and the presence of liquid feces with mucus impurities.
To cure an ailment, a pet is “put on a diet,” and then soft feeds of fresh preparation are gradually introduced.
A hemorrhagic disease is almost always asymptomatic, while a healthy-looking rabbit dies suddenly without obvious signs of an ailment. The virus is transmitted instantly by airborne droplets, through food, contaminated equipment, feces from sick animals, and sewage. The risk group that is most affected by the disease consists of pregnant and lactating rabbits, young animals over two months old, adult animals under 6 years old. There is no cure for this infection, therefore, vaccination can only be carried out in a timely manner.
Red urine in a rabbit
Red urine in pets indicates an excess of urinary pigments and most often is not a fatal ailment.
Urine discoloration may be due to:
- with antibiotics;
- with a decrease in room temperature, for example, autumn cooling;
- with the presence of needles in the menu;
- with the presence in the diet of foods rich in beta-carotene, which affects the color of urine.
However, if blood impurities, blood clots are found in the urine, then this is an occasion to visit a veterinarian, since hematuria can indicate a disease of the genitourinary system, development of urolithiasis, cancer of the uterus or genitalia.
Infectious stomatitis, or “wet muzzle”, most often affects rabbits. The disease is expressed in redness of the lips, mucous membrane of the oral cavity and nose, tongue. Further progression of the disease leads to the formation of white plaque on the sites of redness, the development of diarrhea, apathy, loss of appetite. With untimely treatment, the prognosis of such a disease is unfavorable.
Diarrhea, which is accompanied by intense thirst, refusal to eat, or excessive salivation, can signal intoxication of the animal. Feed poisoning can be provoked by poor-quality feed, fresh hay, green herbs mixed with poisonous plants, as well as rabbits eating a lot of sodium chloride. Enema help the digestive tract help enemas and warm milk, which pets drink.
Ear scabies, which is provoked by the influence of an ear tick, is a frequent ailment that affects animals. On the inner surface of the auricles, adjacent areas of the skin, as well as the skin of the front paws, crusts and scabs form, which coarsen over time and begin to itch. As a result of this, the animal has a wild desire to scratch the site of damage, it actively shakes its head, paws, itches on the objects surrounding it. To combat the tick, special oil-based anti-mite preparations are used, which treat the affected areas.
In addition to conjunctivitis, other eye diseases may occur in rabbits:
- uveitis. expressed in the appearance of spots on the cornea, while the mucous membrane becomes very dry. Photophobia develops in the animal, lacrimation develops, the pupil becomes narrow. For therapy, antibacterial drugs are used;
- exophthalmos. a sign is a strong bulging of the eyeball, as a result of which the animal cannot blink. An ailment is caused by a dental abscess, which is located directly behind the eye. Sick animals due to lack of effective treatment are sent to slaughter or deprived of their eyes;
- corneal ulcer. May occur due to mechanical injury or chronic erosion. At the initial stages of the disease, there is inflammation of the cornea, then tissue death. The ulcer is removed surgically, antibiotics are also used for therapy.
Rhinitis in rabbits can develop if they are kept in adverse conditions, in particular, with increased humidity, cold air, drafts, a lot of dust, etc. The animal’s immune system weakens and they get a runny nose, mucous membranes, or purulent discharge from the nasal passages, which pharmacy special means, such as Furacilin or Penicillin, effectively help to treat.
Purulent discharge on the eyes (conjunctivitis) can occur due to dust from hay, sawdust, combined feed. In the first stages, the disease is expressed in redness and swelling of the eyelids, lacrimation. Then purulent discharge that completely fills the eyes joins. Infected animals are washed several times a day with visual organs through a 2% solution of boric acid, and they also instill eyes with “Levomycetin”.
A long stay of rabbits in unsanitary conditions can provoke the development of colds, ignoring which can lead to the development of serious complications, in particular, pneumonia. In this case, the animal becomes lethargic, weakened, refuses food, it rises in temperature and abundant discharge from the nasal passages is observed.
They treat inflammation by intramuscular injection of the Penicillin solution. Also, therapy is accompanied by the appointment of vitamin-mineral complexes, which are designed to strengthen the immune system and increase the protective functions of the body.
The use of drugs for the treatment of diseases
For the treatment of ailments of rabbits, a wide variety of medications are used, the appointment of which is carried out by a professional veterinarian after an accurate diagnosis is established.
Solikoks for rabbits
The drug "Solikoks" is intended for the treatment of infectious disease of coccidiosis. It is characterized by a wide range of effects and allows you to destroy all types of coccidia parasitizing in the body. The medicine goes well with other medicines, does not cause poisoning even with repeated overdose. Before use, the powder is diluted with clean water according to the instructions, then the rabbits are soldered to them for at least 12 hours a day.
Lactic acid is considered a universal drug used in the treatment of animals.
It has an antiseptic, anti-fermentative, disinfecting effect and is indicated for:
- flatulence and diarrhea.
For external use, lactic acid is used to disinfect wounds, in abscesses, fungal and inflammatory lesions of the skin. Contraindications to the use of the drug are kidney ailments and weeping ulcers.
Iodine has long been known as a drug with an antiseptic effect. For rabbits, iodine solution is a real elixir. It is used in the treatment of acute symptoms of coccidiosis, as well as for the prevention of digestive tract ailments. A few drops of tincture of potassium iodide are added to water to prevent infectious diseases. Iodine lubricates wounds or ulcers on the skin.
Bycox is a first aid in many diseases of rabbits. It has an anti-coccidic effect and due to the main component. toltrazuril allows you to effectively fight coccidiosis. It does not cause side effects, is characterized by excellent tolerance, can be used with other medicines.
The uniqueness of the drug is that it allows you to cure an ailment at various stages. both at the initial stage, and with a running course. When using the product preventively, it makes it possible to develop special antibodies to kill infections.
Rabbivak V vaccine
There are a number of rabbit diseases, in particular hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which are not treatable. They are asymptomatic and lead to instant death of animals. To prevent such a fatal outcome, vaccination helps, for which the drug "Rabbivac V" is used. The vaccine is developed on the basis of a treated strain of hemorrhagic virus and allows you to activate the production of immunity to a certain type of ailment. Before use, Rabbivac is diluted with water and administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly to the animal. It is recommended to vaccinate rabbits with a high risk of infection every six months.
Common rabbit diseases
Since young rabbits under the age of one month have a stable and strong immune system, they almost never suffer from ailments.
However, deaths of small cubs are a fairly common occurrence, the causes of which may be:
- low temperature in the nest, at which the rabbits simply freeze;
- hunger. Insufficient amount of mother’s milk and, as a result, nutritional deficiency can lead to the death of babies
- unsanitary conditions.
Animals older than one month are subject to the same diseases as adults. However, diseases develop much more rapidly and in most cases, with untimely treatment, end in large losses.
What diseases of rabbits can be dangerous for humans
The development of diseases in rabbits gives breeders a lot of worries. But in some cases, illnesses can be extremely dangerous, we are talking about rabbits transmitted from sick rabbits to humans.
Among such infectious diseases can be identified:
Human infection occurs by contact with a sick animal, through contaminated equipment, water, and by eating meat from a sick animal.
To reduce the risk of infection, you should:
- minimize contact with infected rabbits;
- when taking care of pets, use personal protective equipment;
- disinfect cells, dishes, tools;
- Eat meat only from proven animals.
If any suspicious symptoms appear after contact with a sick animal, you should immediately consult a doctor. At the same time, infected rabbits should be isolated, thorough diagnostics should be carried out to determine the ailment, provided with qualified treatment, if possible, or allowed to slaughter.
To prevent the development of ailments in rabbits, a number of preventive measures are carried out:
- strict compliance with sanitary standards for keeping animals in the cage;
- compulsory quarantine when purchasing livestock from another farm;
- systematic decontamination of cells, dishes, and all equipment;
- regular visual inspection of each individual for possible ailments;
- immediate isolation of diseased animals or rabbits with suspected illness;
- organization of high-quality, nutritious nutrition, taking into account the age of animals, climatic conditions, season. Enrichment of feed with vitamin and mineral complexes.
Rabbits are animals that are distinguished by good health and strong immunity. However, in violation of sanitary conditions and poor nutrition, they are able to undergo various ailments, many of which can be fatal. To preserve the livestock, it is necessary to regularly examine the animals, monitor the purity of the cells, organize a full-fledged diet for them, and conduct timely preventive vaccination against the most dangerous diseases.