Hemorrhagic disease of rabbits. Three words that make rabbit breeders feel cold. After all, if coccidiosis and myxomatosis. another inseparable companion of rodents. with timely intervention give a good chance of recovery, the disease of rabbit HBV due to its suddenness and scale leads to despair. For many, the virus mows up to 100% of the livestock. And evil takes, and hands fall
So what to do? To vaccinate rabbits from hemorrhagic disease, there is no other way! But to vaccinate correctly: in a timely manner, taking into account other vaccinations, and without making relief for the time of year. A hemorrhagic doesn’t care if it’s warm now or cold. Yes, in a 50-degree frost, the pathogen freezes, but “thaws” with warming, without losing activity. HBVC is transmitted not only by blood-sucking insects and rodents, as beginning rabbit breeders think, but also through the inventory, hands and clothes of sick animals. Therefore, at any time of the year, VGBK can come to you. And you have to be ready.
So, what is a hemorrhagic rabbit disease? What are its symptoms, transmission routes? Is hemorrhage treated? How to vaccinate rabbits against HBVC? And most importantly. what to do with the rest of the livestock if the case of rabbits has begun? We will try to answer these complex and highly relevant questions for rabbit breeders.
Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (HBV): Description of the Disease
HBVC is caused by an RNA-containing virus, which, when ingested, causes hemorrhagic diathesis (hemorrhage) in all organs. primarily the liver and lungs.
The HBVC virus is transmitted through infected feed, bedding, water, soil, skins of infected animals, clothing, tools, and hands of owners. The virus "lives" for more than five years, suffering frosts up to.40-50 degrees and 50-degree heat. In addition, it can easily be transmitted through handshakes (greeted a rabbit breeder neighbor), fur products (3 months in dried skins), infected animals (brought for mating, taken to the exhibition), etc. Thus, no isolation, yes and disinfection, in the case of HBVC, will not particularly help.
Symptoms of rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease
At first, referred to as the incubation period, no clinical signs were observed in infected rabbits. It lasts up to two weeks. funny, nimble with a good appetite. And one not beautiful morning you find a dead carcass in a cage, and nothing indicates the reasons, except for a small bloody or yellow outflow from the nose, and even then. not always.
Indeed, seizing the moment is not only that of infection with HBVC animals, but it is also difficult to recognize the doomed even a few hours before death. But with a trained eye, one can notice lethargy, apathy, poor appetite, a figure that has crumpled in the corner of the cage. A little more than a day before death in rabbits, the temperature rises to 40.8 degrees, but in practice this symptom is quite difficult to track. And just before the death, the eared “out of the blue” falls, makes several convulsive movements with its paws, sometimes it squeals, and perishes.
Pathological and anatomical changes in HBV
In a rabbit, edematous lungs filled with blood are colored unevenly. Hemorrhages are visible on the walls of the nasal cavity and trachea. The spleen is significantly enlarged, dark cherry, swollen. The kidneys are enlarged, filled with blood, reddish-brown. The heart is enlarged, filled with black and red blood. In the gastrointestinal tract, catarrh is observed.
Who is susceptible to HBVC?
One thing in this disease pleases. only hares and rabbits are exposed to it. Other pets and people are not susceptible to the HBV virus.
Is it possible to eat the meat of rabbits killed or suspected of HBVC? According to the rules. you can’t. The carcasses of animals must be disposed of (burned together with skins, do not dispose in raw form). But in practice, often the meat of dead rabbits is well cooked and fed to pets. The meat of “doubtful” rabbits (for example, from the same cage with the deceased, or from neighboring ones) is subjected to prolonged heat treatment and is eaten (stew). Offal in both cases destroy.
As for the susceptibility of the rabbits themselves to the hemorrhagic, much depends on whether they are vaccinated, what age they are and what immunity.
Since babies receive immunity from the mother (with colostrum, milk), until the time of absence (1-1.5 months), they are considered immune to the virus. The most vulnerable group is adult rabbits (from three months old), primarily rabbits. Quite often, pregnant females become ill with hemorrhagic disease. In second place in terms of vulnerability to HCVF are adult males. The most well-fed, most encouraging rabbits die.
HBVC: vaccination and treatment
Are there any drugs for HBV? There are special serums that are positioned both as antiviral and as immunomodulating agents. That is, they both treat and prevent. But, as practice shows, such serums work well as prophylactic agents; they can be prescribed to animals before vaccination. But the effectiveness of treatment specifically against hemorrhages with such sera tends to zero. Alas.
Thus, effective treatment of HBV has not yet been developed.
Vaccination of rabbits from HBVC
We have already written about vaccination of rabbits here. But in the case of VGBK, you can repeat.
So, rabbits can be vaccinated either with a complex vaccine. against hemorrhagic and myxomatosis, or separately. separately “VGBK” and separately “myxomatosis”.
A comprehensive vaccine for HBV myxomatosis is carried out according to the following scheme: 45 days. the first vaccination, during or on the eve of the baby’s bedding from the mother; three months after the first. the second vaccination (at 4.5 months); all further. every six months.
If the vaccine is not complex, be sure to consider when the previous vaccination was carried out. Thus, a vaccine against GBA should be used no later than 10 days before vaccination against myxomatosis, or no earlier than two weeks after vaccination against myxomatosis. You cannot use multiple vaccines at the same time! At least ten days must pass between vaccinations!
Some misunderstanding may arise after reading the instructions for HBV vaccines. In them, as a rule, it is written that rabbits should be vaccinated not from the six-week, but from the ten-week-old, in hemorrhagic farms. And how do you know if you have a prosperous economy or not? Yesterday. prosperous, today. the mouse ran, a friend visited me. and no longer safe. Therefore. do not take risks, but deliberately designate your economy as "not safe according to the VGBK". And instill pets according to all the rules, that is. from the age of six weeks. And in the rampant epidemic, you can vaccinate babies from the age of one month.
The vaccine specifically against HBVC provides an active immunity duration of an average of 10-12 months. In this case, rabbits vaccinated at one and a half months of age are re-vaccinated. The terms of re-vaccination are different, depending on the manufacturer. 2-3 weeks, a month, two months. Animals vaccinated over 10 weeks of age are not required to be re-vaccinated. In the future, this event, called revaccination, is carried out no later than six months after the last vaccination.
If you use a complex vaccine, it is convenient to carry out vaccinations in the spring and summer, twice a year, to maintain the immunity of the uterine livestock. For example, you can take it as a rule to vaccinate young animals that have reached a month of age, and their brood stock since April. With the advent of heat, years of insects are activated (relevant for myxomatosis), so the beginning of April will be the most appropriate period for vaccinating rabbits. And from October to April, vaccination of the broodstock without need, as a rule, is not carried out.
There are many vaccines against rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Pokrovskaya, Czech "Pestorin", Kiev "Lapimun", Vladimir "Rabbivak". The main thing is that the drug is fresh, properly stored and properly applied.
If VGBK came to the household: what to do? Possible options:
- Do nothing. just wait for the mentioned two weeks, relying on good immunity, inherited by still alive, but not vaccinated rabbits. And on a happy occasion. And what can be done if you don’t even know who is sick and who is not? Someone will not succeed in jailing somewhere. what if he is sick, and you only spread the infection? And if the rabbits that lived in the same cage with the deceased are close to the bottomhole age, do not expect a miracle. put them on the stew.
- Inoculate rabbits if they are not vaccinated. A vaccine is not a cure; it will not cure infected rabbits. But in this case, the animals infected with HBV will die faster, and for now, healthy animals will begin to develop immunity. It happens that after vaccination with VGBK, supposedly healthy rabbits, in an allegedly prosperous economy, die, and rabbit breeders begin to blame the vaccine. It’s not about the vaccine. it’s about the fact that the rabbits were either already infected, or by nature they had practically no immunity, since he was killed by a tiny dose of the virus. In any case, these eared would not have lived for a long time, and the vaccine turned out to be a kind of litmus, which disabled weak individuals. For this, she can only say "thank you."
- Give animals immunomodulating drugs. Katozal, Vitazal, Chiktonik, Gamavit, the mentioned antiviral serums Anfluron, Transvet. Some rabbit breeders consider such events to be something of the area “it’s too late to drink Borjomi if the kidneys fail.” But in fact, for rabbits with weakened immunity. pregnant rabbits, who have recently had myxomatosis, coccidiosis, and rabbits in the heat. such a measure can be saving.
In the end, I would like to remind you about the quarantine for rabbits: never immediately plant your newly purchased rabbits. Even if you purchased the animal at a licensed enterprise, with a certificate and vaccinations, be sure to jail the animal for a two-week, or better, monthly quarantine, during which you will additionally drink from worms and coccidiosis.