Ringworm in ornamental rabbits and guinea pigs. Ringworm is caused by a fungus that infects a wide variety of mammals, including guinea pigs and rabbits.
In nature, there are several types of fungi that cause this disease in rabbits and guinea pigs. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis.
Ringworm in ornamental rabbits and guinea pigs.
Fungal spores can live in the environment for over 19 months. Cats, rabbits, guinea pigs and other mammals are a common source of infection because they can be carriers of this disease without showing any signs of infection.
Ringworm can be infected in direct contact with a sick animal or through objects (brushes, litter and cells). Rabbits of all age groups, including suckling rabbits, suffer from ringworm. The disease is more often observed in rabbits with shedding and indoors (rabbitry). Lichen manifests itself in all seasons of the year, especially in the autumn and spring-summer.
Mushrooms causing infectious diseases , grow well on various nutrient media at a pH of 6.2–6.8 and form colonies with smooth, star-shaped, cobwebbed edges. Usually in the center of the colony, bell-shaped elevations are formed. The fungal mycelia outside the rabbit body are not very stable, while spores, on the contrary, are very stable: they can last from 4 to 10 years indoors.
Ringworm in ornamental rabbits and guinea pigs.Symptoms of the disease. Mushrooms spores on the skin sprout, and mycelia penetrate the hair bag and hair. Then they form small, rapidly drying bubbles filled with exudate. Affected areas expand, crusting, and hair breaks off. Often, such spots form on the head, front and hind legs of the animal. In rabbits and guinea pigs infected with ringworm, wool begins to fall out unevenly, forming round hairless places. The skin in such places is dry and peeling. In guinea pigs, ringworm first affects the face and ears. Lichen can spread throughout the body. Animals experience constant itching, they comb themselves, thereby increasing the likelihood of contracting a secondary infection. The disease is chronic and sometimes lasts for a year.
Ringworm is diagnosed in many ways. The diagnosis is usually made by the presence of rounded bare patches without hair, covered with dense grayish crusts, without bleeding ulcerations. An important criterion in determining the diagnosis is the fragility of the hairline of the affected areas.
The most popular, but not too accurate method, is the diagnosis using black (Wood’s lamp). Some varieties of ringworm fungi begin to fluoresce when located under this lamp.
Another method is to examine damaged hairs under a microscope, using a KOH preparation (potassium hydroxide) to make fungi more visible. In this way, 40-70% of all fungi can be diagnosed.
The most accurate way to diagnose is to study skin scraping and scabs from infected sites. A scraping is done from the affected areas (with hair roots), after its splitting, 1-2 drops of a 25-30% solution of caustic soda or caustic potassium are applied to the substrate and heated, and this content is transferred to a microscope slide. Detection of the causative agent of the disease is a confirmation of the diagnosis.
Medical and preventive measures. Ill animals are isolated from others, because fungal spores are highly contagious. Wool near infected areas is cut short. All objects that come into contact with a sick animal are disinfected.
Rabbits infected with ringworm are treated with the vaccines Wackderm and Microderm.
Guinea pigs are washed with keratolytic shampoos, given antifungal drugs (miconazole or clotrimazole). In severe cases, the antibiotic griseofulvin, which is introduced into the feed, is used as a treatment against ringworm. The antibiotic is given once at the rate of 20 mg per 1 kg of live weight per day. Treatment lasts 30 days, twice at a 15-day course with an interval of 5 days. Between courses of treatment, rabbits are transferred to disinfected cells.
In other methods, crusts and hair from and around the affected areas are removed and burned (moistened previously moistened areas with a warm solution of liquor). Then the lesion sites and the skin around them are treated with 10% tincture of iodine, 10% alcohol solution of salicylic acid, lysol, creolin, 1-2% trichoticinum ointment on a petrolatum base. Treatment is repeated after 1-2 days. The most effective is the treatment of ringworm by double treatment of the affected areas with iodine tincture, followed by rubbing of fish oil heated to a temperature of 50-60 ° C.
Ringworm spores are very resistant to many disinfectants. Chlorhexidine, glutex, delegol will kill most fungi, you can also use whiteness diluted 1:10 with water. Also, with wet disinfection, a 3% formaldehyde solution with the addition of 1% sodium hydroxide is used; 2% formaldehyde solution with the addition of 1% sodium hydroxide and 3% phenolic creolin. Use other disinfectant solutions. Disinfection is carried out twice with a daily interval, the solutions are used heated to 30-50 ° C. ©
All tools, care products, litter, cage, etc. items must be cleaned and disinfected. Carpets need to be steamed and disinfected. Upholstered furniture is thoroughly vacuumed, garbage bags are immediately thrown away. After several weeks, the disinfection is repeated.
Ringworm is also transmitted to humans. People with reduced immunity (such as AIDS or cancer) are most vulnerable. When dealing with sick animals, gloves should be worn and hands should be washed thoroughly after each contact.