A careful approach to your pets is the key to their well-being. When raising rabbits, it is important to periodically inspect them, thereby conducting an initial diagnosis of health. Everyone knows that these animals tend to get sick often, so you should pay attention to any changes in their condition. Loss of hair, if it is not associated with seasonal molting, is one of the symptoms of malaise, because skin diseases of rabbits manifest themselves in this way. It is important for the farmer to know what diseases of the skin these animals have, what symptoms are characteristic of them, and how they are treated.
Is hair loss a norm or a pathology?
It is difficult for an uninformed person to distinguish when hair loss is the norm, and when it speaks of a pathological process. The owner of a rabbit farm needs to learn how to conduct an initial diagnosis of a pet’s health status. What indicates a skin disease:
- Loss of wool in shreds.
- Anxiety animal.
- The presence of scratches on the skin.
- Peeling of the skin, redness.
If a skin parasite or a fungal infection occurs, the animal may lose weight due to intoxication. If the rabbit is healthy, then such symptoms are not found, and instead of falling out hair, a new one grows evenly when molting. Consider the main diseases of the skin in rabbits.
Dermatomycosis or skin fungus
There are several varieties of skin fungus that cause their dermatophytes. Most often, the causative agents of the disease are trichophytons and microsporums. They penetrate the layers of the skin, forming filaments, and multiply by spores. Food for mushrooms is carotene, which is found in the fiber of the skin, claws and hair of a pet. Infection always occurs against the background of a decrease in the immunity of the animal, and the provoking factors are:
- Poor nutrition.
- Disruption of the hormonal background.
- Other diseases
All types of dermatomycoses are quickly transmitted from one individual to another, and also pose a danger to humans. Crowded animals are a favorable factor for the spread of infection.
A variety of dermatomycosis. ringworm. A feature of this disease is breaking off wool in the affected area. The hairs at the same time look as if they were cut with scissors. In this case, the very places of the introduction of the fungus have a rounded shape and clear boundaries.
Symptoms of skin fungus:
- Itchy skin in the region of the head, in the region of the ears and between them.
- Loss, breaking off wool.
- Peeling skin.
- In the affected areas, redness is observed, an anemone is secreted.
Treatment of dermatomycosis is carried out comprehensively. Special preparations are used in the form of ointments, antimycotics. In some cases, it is advisable to prescribe antifungal drugs inside, for example, clotrimazole or its analogues. Antimycotics:
- Ointment with Amicazolum Yam.
In addition to these funds, which are aimed at combating fungus, it is necessary to use medicines that relieve itching. These include. Fenistil, Surolan, Canestin. Treatment lasts about 3 weeks. When ringworm deprives a good therapeutic effect is achieved after a double or triple use of the vaccine Wackderm. However, its use is not a reason for neglect of other methods of treatment.
Attention! Before starting treatment, the wool is removed from the damaged areas, which facilitates the processing of the skin. The removed fur needs to be burned.
Skin diseases in rabbits are often caused by arthropods and ticks. They are different. subcutaneous, scabies, fur. All of them are capable of causing discomfort to the pet, as they cause severe itching. When infected with any kind of ticks, the sick individual is immediately precipitated from the remaining animals.
The itch mite is known for making passages in the skin for laying eggs, thereby causing the animal great discomfort. In places where parasites are introduced, the rabbit combs the skin, so that over time crusts form there, the epidermis becomes denser.
The fur tick is much larger than its counterparts, scabies and subcutaneous, it can be detected with a magnifier. Symptoms of damage by this type of tick are severe hair loss in the area of the ridge, tail, peeling and itching.
The subcutaneous tick penetrates into the deep layers of the epidermis, and therefore it is impossible to detect it. Symptoms of infection are similar to the previous ones. itching occurs on the back, the skin peels off, with intensive combing it thickens.
Rabbit ear mite
Tick treatment is carried out using acaricidal drugs or sulfuric lime. Ointments are applied externally, treating the affected areas of the skin. A good result is achieved when Ivermectin injections are used.
Attention! Some types of ticks can do without a host for some time, so it is important to treat the cage, as well as the entire room with special means, to destroy individuals temporarily staying outside the body of the pet.
The causative agent of this disease is a bloodsucking parasite belonging to the genus Psoroptes cuniculi. It is embedded in the auricle, where many capillaries are located. Most often, the disease spreads in the fall or winter, when the immunity of the pets decreases. Infection occurs by contact with a sick animal.
Symptoms of psoroptosis are easy to recognize:
- The animal often scratches the ears, scratches form around the ears.
- The rabbit is depressed, worried, loses its appetite.
- With severe mite damage in the ears, a serous secret is formed, which has an unpleasant odor.
- The pet lowers its ears, shakes its head.
Attention! With the addition of a secondary infection, inflammation of the lining of the brain is possible, which leads to the death of the rabbit.
Local treatment of psoroptosis includes cleaning the ears with hydrogen peroxide (3%), after which the auricles are treated with acaricidal sprays or formulations:
As a general therapy, injections of Ivermek or Ivomek (0.2%) are used. The drug is administered intramuscularly at a dosage of 200 μg / kg body weight.
Eczema is a non-infectious disease, it occurs against the background of an allergy to chemicals, to food. A provoking factor is a digestive system disorder in a pet or a disease of the internal organs. kidneys, liver. Often, eczema develops due to the use of antibiotics, infection with helminthic invasion or skin parasites. At its core, eczema is an inflammation of the epidermis.
There are several stages of the disease, each of them is characterized by certain signs:
- Erythematous stage. redness of the skin and swelling are characteristic of it.
- Papular. at this stage, reddish seals form on the skin, which so far do not itch and do not cause bother to the rabbit.
- Vesicular stage of the disease. at this stage, the papule nodules are filled with liquid contents, outwardly they resemble blisters. The pet experiences pain when clicking on the affected area.
- Erosion stage. now the bubbles gradually burst, and instead of them small abscesses form. For that stage of the disease, severe itching is characteristic.
- Crustal stage. as a result of combing of pustules on the skin, crusts form, which disappear over time. The healing process begins.
Eczema treatment includes the use of disinfectants to treat the skin in places where inflammation develops. After disinfection, antimicrobial and healing ointments are applied to the affected areas. Eczema can also be treated with folk remedies, for example, ointment with copper sulfate or turpentine. They help relieve inflammation and various compresses based on herbal decoctions. sage, nettle, burdock.
Prevention of skin diseases in rabbits
Since most skin diseases cause parasites and fungal infections, it is important to maintain cleanliness in the home of pets, and also to avoid contact with sick animals. An important role in the prevention of dermatomycosis is played by the immune system. Pets should eat right, receive vitamins and minerals in the required amount.
Proper nutrition as prevention
To prevent infection with fungal infections, you can resort to preventive vaccination of all individuals. A careful attitude to the animals, their examination will help in time to recognize the symptoms of the development of skin ailments and immediately begin treatment. It is important to understand that when infected with a tick or fungus, there is always a risk of a secondary infection.
Skin diseases cannot be ignored, since they quickly spread to healthy individuals and can lead to sad consequences. intoxication of the body, exhaustion, infection with a bacterial infection, and even the death of pets. To make an accurate diagnosis, the animal should be shown to the veterinarian, and after consultation, follow all the doctor’s recommendations.