Ringworm is caused by various fungal diseases. It can infect almost all healthy individuals, including ordinary and ornamental rabbits. Currently, two main fungi are known: Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Spores of such viruses live for more than 20 months.
Deprive or trichophytosis. the disease has been known for several centuries. Because of it, various subsequent diseases were grouped. Experienced veterinarians call lichen one of the developed forms of dermatosis. The disease is very dangerous. Transmitted from one animal to another. Most often, rabbits with poor immunity are susceptible to the disease. It is also influenced by environmental factors. The disease can occur with severe hypothermia. An acute respiratory viral infection may also be the cause.
Lichen in rabbits is a dangerous fungal disease. The causative agents are parasitic fungi. The disease can completely affect the skin of animals. In rare cases, rabbits may begin to crumble their nails. The disease has several forms:
- Infiltrative suppurative.
Each subspecies of the disease has its own symptoms and features. But they are all united by the appearance of blood-pink spots in the affected areas of the skin. Lichen has raised rounded edges and strong peeling. It is accompanied by constant itching. If the first stage of the disease is started, then it develops into a chronic form. In this case, the affected area is greatly expanded. Large spots with a black fringing form on the skin. Exfoliation begins. Abscesses appear on the sites.
Symptoms of the disease
- The first symptoms of a fungal lesion are small spots, reaching a diameter of 1-2 cm. The largest lesions can reach 4-5 cm.
- Spots can merge with each other and pass into the largest lichen.
- With the launched form, the rabbit’s body can completely become covered with spores of fungi.
- In most cases, no more than 1-2 large foci should be allocated.
- Small specks appear next to them.
- The skin inside the affected area is edematous. It has a reddish tint.
- The skin is very flaky.
- At this point, a sick rabbit may be disturbed by severe itching.
- On the outside of the focus, crusts and small bubbles form. Pus is secreted from the vesicles.
- Spores of fungi grow very quickly, occupying an increasingly large area of a healthy body.
- One week after the manifestation of the disease, breaking off the crusts occurs. The broken off hairline looks like hemp, reaching a height of 1 mm. 2.5 cm hemp have a silver coating.
- Inside them contains a large amount of pus. When pressed, purulent fluid flows out. This form of the disease is complicated by abscesses.
- An increasing number of inflamed areas and ulcers are formed. The defeat develops independently.
In order to prevent mass infection of the disease of the entire population, measures must be taken in time. Medical care must be provided in the early stages of the disease. Therefore, experienced breeders recommend carefully monitoring the health of individuals. At the first alarming symptoms of animals should immediately show the veterinarian.
About 7-15 days elapse from the moment a fungal disease gets on the skin to the appearance of alarming signs. Although there have been cases when trichophytosis does not show any signs within 30-100 days. Such an unusual incubation period does not appear at all, and also absolutely does not affect the health of pets. Upon contact of the animal with a sick livestock, it is urgent to show the rabbit to the veterinarian.
If you start timely treatment, then you can eliminate the ailment at the initial stage.
- A professional veterinarian can detect ringworm without any special equipment. But for accurate confirmation of the disease, laboratory tests will be required. The simplest and most popular method is taking a scraping from an infected area of the skin. An experienced specialist should take a small area of cell tissue, carefully examining it under a microscope.
- Microscopic examination of scabs and infected areas can be applied to almost all diseased individuals. Using this method, you can diagnose more than 45-70% of all fungal diseases. For this method, it is necessary to use potassium hydroxide. preparation of KOH. Thanks to this mixture, fungi become visible.
- Another popular method is inspection of rabbits under a special Wood lamp. Most subspecies of the fungus absorb a large amount of phosphorus from the surrounding nature. This fungus will glow well under the black light of the lamp. The fungus may begin to fluoresce, becoming most noticeable. But it is worth considering that this method does not give 100% of the result. Therefore, it is used only with the microscopic method or with inaccurate options.
Must match the necessary clinical picture. They are determined by experienced specialists during an external examination of the corpses of animals. An unpleasant mouse smell should emanate from the skin of such animals. The hair should be with bald patches and bald spots. Internal organs are not subject to any distortion.
- Treatment should be with the Microderm or Wakderm vaccine.. It is necessary to vaccinate rabbits with these vaccines after the appointment of a veterinarian. Injections are done under the strict supervision of a physician. Dry vaccine is valid for 365 days. Liquid ampoules are suitable for six months. They must be stored in a dark room at a temperature not exceeding 2-10 ° C. Before the injection, the dry vaccine is diluted with saline or distilled water. The recommended proportions of a single dose are 1: 1. The price of Mikroderm varies from 250 to 300 rubles. The cost of Wackderm is 80-100 rubles. As side effects, a slight seal at the injection site may occur. Sometimes there is increased drowsiness.
- As a quick treatment, you can use the antibiotic "Griseofulvin". The tool is used in severe stages of the disease. It must be given to animals along with food. For 1 kg of rabbit weight, 20 mg of the drug will be required. Recommended treatment duration: 30 days. You must complete two full courses of two weeks each. Between them should take a week break. During such a break, the animal is sedimented from other individuals into a clean, sanitized room. The released cell should be decontaminated. It is necessary to take into account the fact that this drug can only act on a live vaccine. Therefore, animals should be vaccinated at least 10-12 days after stopping the drug. The cost of the product is 250-300 rubles.
- Also it is necessary to apply keratolytic shampoos, gradually eliminating this disease. For example, Doctor shampoo, worth 150-200 rubles, is suitable. All identical products contain 3% benzoyl peroxide. It suppresses all skin processes that have arisen. Has antiseborrheic effect. It has an antifungal property. Such a tool must be applied to wet skin. The solution is rubbed until a foam appears. After that, wash off with a stream of warm water. Repeated application is also required. The product is kept on the skin for 9-16 minutes. Frequency of use: 1-3 days, depending on the intensity of the manifestation of the disease.
- Ringworm can be treated with various antifungal ointments. To do this, the ointment "Yam", "Amikazol", "Saprosan", "Salicylic", "Iodine-vasogen", "Iodine-glycerin", "Unisan", "Salicylic alcohol" is suitable. Means are applied in massaging movements on the affected area. The frequency of use should be indicated in the instructions. Strong antifungal ointments are allowed. For this, “Clotrimazole” and “Miconazole” preparations are suitable.
The duration of treatment by any method should be at least 14-16 days.
- First of all, it is necessary to observe hygiene. On farms with large numbers of animals or in apartments containing decorative rabbits, cleanliness must always be observed. There are veterinary and sanitary rules, the violation of which leads to the development of various diseases. Clean animal cells, vacuum, or mop the floor as often as possible. It is necessary to disinfect the room and equipment. Excrement must be removed at least once every two days.
- A proper diet should be followed. Animals every day should receive all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Their food should include green feed, cereals, silage, vitamin supplements, granular feed. There should always be access to clean drinking water. Otherwise, the animal organism will begin to weaken. With weakened immunity, rabbits often begin to get sick. They may develop lichen.
- The rooms in which animals are kept should be well ventilated and warm. There should be no cold gusts of wind. The rooms should have large clean windows. Lichen may appear during hypothermia. Therefore, temperature drops below 15 ° C must not be allowed. It is strictly forbidden to let animals walk in the rain and during frosts.
- It is worth restricting communication with other animals. Even if depriving is not observed in rabbits, it does not mean at all that the animal is not infected. The incubation period in rabbits lasts 7-15 days.
- It is necessary to vaccinate in a timely manner.
- When buying a new livestock, animals should be kept in separate enclosures. Only after a 30-day period can rabbits be planted with the main individuals.
Rabbits infected with ringworm must be isolated from other animals. Spores of all existing fungal species are highly contagious. They can be transmitted to other animals as well as to humans. The hair next to the affected area of the skin should be carefully trimmed. The equipment used by the rabbit must be thoroughly disinfected. You should also disinfect the cage in which the animal lives. Carpets are steam treated. Upholstered furniture must be vacuumed. Garbage bags collected from infected animals should be thrown away immediately.
It is worth considering that the spores of this disease are resistant to almost all disinfecting drugs. These include:
To disinfect fungal diseases, whiteness is necessary. The solution is diluted in boiled water. Recommended ratio: 1:10. After 15-25 days, disinfection must be repeated. The cell in which the animal lives is disinfected more than three times.
After the rabbit is ill with lichen, it develops intense immunity. The animal will not be able to get the same disease again. Immunity lasts a long time. Also, for immunization, a special vaccination can be carried out. For this I use mentavak LTG-135. the method of use should be indicated in the instructions. Vaccination is necessary for adults over 45 days. Animals are vaccinated as a prophylaxis, as well as for therapeutic purposes. Recommended dose: 1 ml. The procedure must be performed twice. The interval between vaccinations should be 1-1.5 weeks. Drugs are administered intramuscularly. For an injection, the inner thigh is used. After vaccination, immunity should occur 20-25 days after the second injection. Immunization lasts for 3-4 years.
The danger of disease to humans
From a sick animal, the disease can go to the person. People with low immunity after a cold, with AIDS, syphilis and cancer are especially susceptible to the disease. In rare cases, the disease can affect the nail plate. On the outer sections of the marigolds, isolated snow-white spots form. At the site of the affected area, the nail begins to crumble and soften very much. Experienced breeders in contact with sick individuals recommend wearing rubber gloves. After inspection, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.
Lichen can appear both in the hairline and on open skin. In humans, as in animals, a fungal disease is affected independently. Small spots appear on the skin, reaching 3 cm. They have clear rounded edges. Gradually, spots develop into rings and begin to protrude above the skin. They have a blood pink color. Inside the rings are tiny scales, crusty. The optimal localization of spots is the scalp, beard, mustache, neck, face and shoulders. In most cases, slight itching is observed.